See also MVA for Incomplete Abortion

Ankum WM, Wieringa-De Waard M, Bindels PJ. Management of spontaneous miscarriage in the first trimester: an example of putting informed shared decision making into practice. Bmj. Jun 2 2001;322(7298):1343-1346.
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Bagratee JS, Khullar V, Regan L, Moodley J, Kagoro H. A randomized controlled trial comparing medical and expectant management of first trimester miscarriage. Hum Reprod. Feb 2004;19(2):266-271.
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Benger JR. Clinical examination has important role. Bmj. Aug 14 2004;329(7462):404.
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Blohm F, Friden B, Platz-Christensen JJ, Milsom I, Nielsen S. Expectant management of first-trimester miscarriage in clinical practice. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. Jul 2003;82(7):654-658.
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Blohm F, Friden BE, Milsom I, Platz-Christensen JJ, Nielsen S. A randomised double blind trial comparing misoprostol or placebo in the management of early miscarriage. Bjog. Aug 2005;112(8):1090-1095.
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Chipchase J, James D. Randomised trial of expectant versus surgical management of spontaneous miscarriage. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. Jul 1997;104(7):840-841.
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Chung T, Leung P, Cheung LP, Haines C, Chang AM. A medical approach to management of spontaneous abortion using misoprostol. Extending misoprostol treatment to a maximum of 48 hours can further improve evacuation of retained products of conception in spontaneous abortion. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. Mar 1997;76(3):248-251.
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Chung TK, Lee DT, Cheung LP, Haines CJ, Chang AM. Spontaneous abortion: a randomized, controlled trial comparing surgical evacuation with conservative management using misoprostol. Fertil Steril. Jun 1999;71(6):1054-1059.
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Coughlin LB, Roberts D, Haddad NG, Long A. Medical management of first trimester miscarriage (blighted ovum and missed abortion): is it effective? J Obstet Gynaecol. Jan 2004;24(1):69-71.
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Coughlin LB, Roberts D, Haddad NG, Long A. Medical management of first trimester incomplete miscarriage using misoprostol. J Obstet Gynaecol. Jan 2004;24(1):67-68.
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Dalton, Vanessa K , Harris, Lisa , Weisman, Carol S., Guire, Ken, Castleman, Laura and Lebovic Dan , Patient Preferences, Satisfaction, and Resource Use in Office Evacuation of Early Pregnancy Failure JACOG, vol. 108, no. 1, July 2006, pp 103-110.
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Demetroulis C, Saridogan E, Kunde D, Naftalin AA. A prospective randomized control trial comparing medical and surgical treatment for early pregnancy failure. Hum Reprod. Feb 2001;16(2):365-369.
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Elson J, Tailor A, Salim R, Hillaby K, Dew T, Jurkovic D. Expectant management of miscarriage--prediction of outcome using ultrasound and novel biochemical markers. Hum Reprod. Aug 2005;20(8):2330-2333.
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Forna F, Gulmezoglu AM. Surgical procedures to evacuate incomplete abortion. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2001(1):CD001993.
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Gazvani R, Honey E, MacLennan FM, Templeton A. Manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) in the management of first trimester pregnancy loss. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. Feb 10 2004;112(2):197-200.
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Geyman JP, Oliver LM, Sullivan SD. Expectant, medical, or surgical treatment of spontaneous abortion in first trimester of pregnancy? A pooled quantitative literature evaluation. J Am Board Fam Pract. Jan-Feb 1999;12(1):55-64.
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Griebel C, Halvorsen J, Golemon T, Day A. Managment of Spontaneous Abortion. American Family Physician. 2005;72(7):1243-1251.
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Hann L, Prine L, Gillespie G., Fam Med. 2005 Another Use Of Papaya As A Teaching Model, Sep;37(8):535-6. PMID: 16145623
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Hurd WW, Whitfield RR, Randolph JF, Jr., Kercher ML. Expectant management versus elective curettage for the treatment of spontaneous abortion. Fertil Steril. Oct 1997;68(4):601-606.
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Johnson N, Priestnall M, Marsay T, Ballard P, Watters J. A randomised trial evaluating pain and bleeding after a first trimester miscarriage treated surgically or medically. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. Apr 1997;72(2):213-215.
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Jurkovic D, Ross JA, Nicolaides KH. Expectant management of missed miscarriage. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. Jun 1998;105(6):670-671.
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Krause SA, Graves BW. Midwifery triage of first trimester bleeding. J Nurse Midwifery. Nov-Dec 1999;44(6):537-548.
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Leung SW, Pang MW, Chung TK. Retained products of gestation in miscarriage: an evaluation of transvaginal ultrasound criteria for diagnosing an "empty uterus". Am J Obstet Gynecol. Oct 2004;191(4):1133-1137.
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Luise C, Jermy K, Collons WP, Bourne TH. Expectant management of incomplete, spontaneous first-trimester miscarriage: outcome according to initial ultrasound criteria and value of follow-up visits. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. Jun 2002;19(6):580-582.
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Molnar AM, Oliver LM, Geyman JP. Patient preferences for management of first-trimester incomplete spontaneous abortion. J Am Board Fam Pract. Sep-Oct 2000;13(5):333-337.
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Moodliar S, Bagratee JS, Moodley J. Medical vs. surgical evacuation of first-trimester spontaneous abortion. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. Oct 2005;91(1):21-26.
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Ngai SW, Chan YM, Tang OS, Ho PC. Vaginal misoprostol as medical treatment for first trimester spontaneous miscarriage. Hum Reprod. Jul 2001;16(7):1493-1496.
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Ngoc NT, Blum J, Westheimer E, Quan TT, Winikoff B. Medical treatment of missed abortion using misoprostol. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. Nov 2004;87(2):138-142.
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Nielsen S, Hahlin M. Expectant management of first-trimester spontaneous abortion. Lancet. Jan 14 1995;345(8942):84-86.
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Nielsen S, Hahlin M, Platz-Christensen J. Randomised trial comparing expectant with medical management for first trimester miscarriages. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. Aug 1999;106(8):804-807.
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Nothnagle M, Prine L, Goodman S., Benefits of Comprehensive Reproductive Health Education In Family Medicine Residency, Fam Med. 2008 Mar;40(3):204-7.PMID: 18320400
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Ogden J, Maker C. Expectant or surgical management of miscarriage: a qualitative study. Bjog. May 2004;111(5):463-467.
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Pang MW, Lee TS, Chung TK. Incomplete miscarriage: a randomized controlled trial comparing oral with vaginal misoprostol for medical evacuation. Hum Reprod. Nov 2001;16(11):2283-2287.
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Phupong V, Taneepanichskul S, Kriengsinyot R, Sriyirojana N, Blanchard K, Winikoff B. Comparative study between single dose 600 microg and repeated dose of oral misoprostol for treatment of incomplete abortion. Contraception. Oct 2004;70(4):307-311.
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Reynolds A, Ayres-de-Campos D, Costa MA, Montenegro N. How should success be defined when attempting medical resolution of first-trimester missed abortion? Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. Jan 10 2005;118(1):71-76.
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Rutherford AJ, Shillito J. The patient with recurrent miscarriage. Practitioner. May 2002;246(1634):342-349.
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Schwarzler P, Holden D, Nielsen S, Hahlin M, Sladkevicius P, Bourne TH. The conservative management of first trimester miscarriages and the use of colour Doppler sonography for patient selection. Hum Reprod. May 1999;14(5):1341-1345.
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Shelley JM, Healy D, Grover S. A randomised trial of surgical, medical and expectant management of first trimester spontaneous miscarriage. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. Apr 2005;45(2):122-127.
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Sotiriadis A, Makrydimas G, Papatheodorou S, Ioannidis JP. Expectant, medical, or surgical management of first-trimester miscarriage: a meta-analysis. Obstet Gynecol. May 2005;105(5 Pt 1):1104-1113.
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Sotiriadis A, Papatheodorou S, Makrydimas G. Threatened miscarriage: evaluation and management. Bmj. Jul 17 2004;329(7458):152-155.
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Tam W, Tsui M, Lok I, Yip S, Yuen P, Chung T. Long-term reproductive outcome subsequent to medical versus surgical treatment for miscarriage. Hum Reprod. Aug 19 2005.
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Tang OS, Lau WN, Ng EH, Lee SW, Ho PC. A prospective randomized study to compare the use of repeated doses of vaginal with sublingual misoprostol in the management of first trimester silent miscarriages. Hum Reprod. Jan 2003;18(1):176-181.
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Thorstensen KA. Midwifery management of first trimester bleeding and early pregnancy loss. J Midwifery Womens Health. Nov-Dec 2000;45(6):481-497.
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Wiebe E, Janssen P. Management of spontaneous abortion in family practices and hospitals. Fam Med. Apr 1998;30(4):293-296.
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Wiebe E, Janssen P. Reducing surgery in management of spontaneous abortions. Family physicians can make a difference. Can Fam Physician. Oct 1999;45:2364-2369.
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Wiebe E, Janssen P. Conservative management of spontaneous abortions. Women's experiences. Can Fam Physician. Oct 1999;45:2355-2360.
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Wieringa-de Waard M, Bindels PJ, Vos J, Bonsel GJ, Stalmeier PF, Ankum WM. Patient preferences for expectant management vs. surgical evacuation in first-trimester uncomplicated miscarriage. J Clin Epidemiol. Feb 2004;57(2):167-173.
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Wieringa-De Waard M, Hartman EE, Ankum WM, Reitsma JB, Bindels PJ, Bonsel GJ. Expectant management versus surgical evacuation in first trimester miscarriage: health-related quality of life in randomized and non-randomized patients. Hum Reprod. Jun 2002;17(6):1638-1642.
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Wieringa-de Waard M, Vos J, Bonsel GJ, Bindels PJ, Ankum WM. Management of miscarriage: a randomized controlled trial of expectant management versus surgical evacuation. Hum Reprod. Sep 2002;17(9):2445-2450.
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Zhang J, Gilles JM, Barnhart K, Creinin MD, Westhoff C, Frederick MM. A comparison of medical management with misoprostol and surgical management for early pregnancy failure. N Engl J Med. Aug 25 2005;353(8):761-769.
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